Michelle Kiser, Ed.D., with Roman Taraban, Ph.D., and Dmitrii Paniukov
Dr. Michelle Kiser received her Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, and Doctorate of Education at Texas Tech University. Michelle completed her dissertation on the “Developmental Students Sources of Self-Efficacy and the University Academic Support Program Impact.” Michelle worked as the Assistant Director of Texas Success Initiative (TSI) Developmental Education Program for five years prior to being promoted to the Director of Support Operations for Academic Retention (SOAR) in May 2009. Michelle manages four programs within SOAR: The Learning Center, Supplemental Instruction, Texas Success Initiative, and Programs for Academic Development and Retention. Michelle has been employed by Texas Tech University for over 14 years. In addition, Michelle is an adjunct instructor for the College of Education at Texas Tech University teaching Teacher Education courses in Content Area Reading. In her spare time, Michelle volunteers for Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA).
Segmentation of information has been shown to increase comprehension and retention of multimedia materials (Mayer & Chandler, 2001; Mayer, Dow & Mayer, 2003; Singh, Marcus & Ayres, 2012). We wondered if memory for science text could be improved by studying information in pieces and then all together.
In a part-whole study method, the person studies the text in several parts and then as a whole, rather than being presented immediately with the whole text. We conducted an experiment to determine whether a part-whole method would enable non-developmental and developmental readers to recall more from a science text compared to using a whole-text method.
Forty-three developmental college readers and 52 non-developmental college readers studied a science text about sea otters. The complete text was about 300 words and had a readability level at approximately an 8th grade level. Half the students in each group were presented with the whole text, and half were presented with the text using the part-whole method. All students studied the text for 10 minutes total. The text was presented on a computer screen, and the timing was controlled by the computer. After studying the text, students were asked what percentage of the text they thought that they comprehended, and what percentage of the text they thought they could recall. They were then asked to recall as much of the text as they could using the computer. Recall was measured using the number of idea units from the passage that each student was able to recall.
The study showed the superiority of the part-whole method when studying science texts. The non-developmental students recalled more idea units than the developmental students, but importantly, both non-developmental and developmental students recalled more idea units when using a part-whole method instead of a whole-text method.
Developmental students who used a part-whole method compared to those who used a whole-text method reported that they comprehended a greater percentage of the text.
Developmental students who used a part-whole method compared to those who used a whole-text method predicted that they would recall a greater percentage of the text—and they actually did!
Overall, the findings suggest that developmental and non-developmental readers are not qualitatively different. Rather, they engage in similar processes, but differ in the skill and effectiveness with which they apply those processes.
As Nist and Simpson point out, “[T]he complexity of learning and studying…cuts across all college students, not just developmental students or students who are struggling” (quote from Stahl, 2006, p. 21).
Mayer, R. E., & Chandler, P. (2001). When learning is just a click away: Does simple user interaction foster deeper understanding of multimedia messages? Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 390.
Mayer, R. E., Dow, G. T., & Mayer, S. (2003). Multimedia learning in an interactive self-explaining environment: What works in the design of agent-based microworlds? Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 806.
Stahl, N. A. (2006). Strategic reading and learning, theory to practice: An interview with Michele Simpson and Sherrie Nist. Journal of Developmental Education, 29 (3), 20-24, 26, 27.